Articulation / Phonology
This refers to difficulties pronouncing different sounds or overall speech clarity. Sounds can be substituted, left off, added or changed. There errors can make it hard for people to understand your child. A phonological process disorder involves patterns of sound errors. For example, substituting all sounds made in the back of the mouth like "k" and "g" for those in the front of the mouth like "t" and "d" (e.g., saying "tup" for "cup" or "das" for "gas").
Although it is normal for children to make mistakes as they learn to speak, consistent articulation difficulties that persist past certain age ranges become a problem that requires assessment and potential treatment.